This Certification Memorandum (CM) aims at stressing the importance of considering human factors (HF) in aircraft and system safety assessments for large aeroplanes, especially in frame of the classification of failure conditions identified using functional hazard assessments (FHAs) of the aircraft and system functions. It provides applicants with a structured HF process that may be used to confirm the assumptions made about the expected flight crew behaviours.

This CM focusses on flight crew HF aspects and more specifically on:

  •  identifying and defining elements to complement AMC 25.1309, including cognitive aspects underlying the failure condition recognition, the elaboration of the diagnosis of the situation, and the flight crew response and post failure management,
  • establishing the criteria driving the level of scrutiny required to demonstrate the validity of the assumptions,
  • providing guidance for the selection of methods and means to be used to show compliance with theapplicable certification specifications.

See Final Certification Memorandum ref. CM-SA-002 Issue 02 on “Flight Crew Human Factors Assumptions in Aircraft and System Safety Assessments” – Applicable to Large Aeroplanes | EASA (

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